The Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science : eISSN 2288-1662 / pISSN 1738-3544

Table. 1.

Table. 1.

The list and interpretation of factors that can be used as biomarkers in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and MCI

Biomarkers Characteristic
Amyloid-β 42/40, APP 669∼711 Reduced Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio in AD
High APP 669∼711/Aβ42 ratio in AD
Brain amyloid positive
ApoE Directly interact with Aβ, tau, and α-synuclein
Apolipoprotein A1 Decreased in AD and MCI
BDNF Decreased in AD but not in MCI
Clusterin/cyclin dependent kinase 5 Increased in AD and MCI
Cystatin C Decreased in AD and MCI
Galectin-3 Microglial activity marker & AD biomarker
GAP-43 Lower in AD & prediction of AD 5∼7 years before cognitive impairment
GSK-3β Increased in AD and MCI
Homocysteine Increased in AD
Neurofilament light High plasma NFL in AD and MCI
Neurograinin High CSF specific in AD
Protein kinase C Formation of amyloid plaque in AD
SNAP25/synaptotagmin 1 Lower in AD & prediction of AD 5∼7 years before cognitive impairment
TDP-43 Nervous system disorders, FTD
Total-tau and phosphorylated-tau Increased in AD (MCI) and acute brain damage
YKL-40 Possible biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of AD
α-1-antitrypsin/α-2-macroglobulin Increased in AD
α-synuclein Aggregation of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB)

Abbreviations: MCI, mild cognitive impairment; Aβ, amyloid-β; AD, Alzheimer’s disease; APP, amyloid precursor protein; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; FTD, frontotemporal dementia; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; NFL, neurofilament light; P-tau, phosphorylated tau; T-tau, total tau; Aβ1-42, 42-residue isoform of beta amyloid protein; GAP-43, growth associated protein; GSK-3β, glycogen synthase kinase 3β; BACE1, β-secretase 1; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; SNAP25, synaptosome associated protein 25; Gal-3, galectin-3; ApoE, apolipoprotein E; TDP-43, transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa; YKL-40, tyrosine (Y), lysine (K) and leucine (L) and the molecular mass of the protein is 40 kDa.

Korean J Clin Lab Sci 2022;54:249-55
© 2022 Korean J Clin Lab Sci