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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

The outlined markers were classified into relevant circulating biomarkers being evaluated within sepsis

Category Biomarker Characteristic References
Chemokines Interleukin (IL-8) Pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in chemotaxis during the inflammation for diagnosis [30]
Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) Role in the progression of sepsis to the immunosuppressive phase to predict [31]
Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)/Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) Highly related members of the CC chemokine subfamily, CC chemokine (or β-chemokine) proteins have two adjacent cysteines (amino acids), near their amino terminus [32]
Osteopontin (OPN) Matricellular protein that mediates diverse biological functions. OPN is involved in normal physiological processes and is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disease states [33]
Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell (RANTES) Valuable sensitivity and specificity [34]
Cell markers Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) Expression increases after the exposition of neutrophil to bacteria showed better prognostication than procalcitonin and C-reactive protein [35]
Presepsin (the receptor of lipopolysaccharide-lipopoly-saccharide binding protein [LPS-LBP] complexes) Measured during the first week of treatment in ICU patients to predict all-cause mortality with respect to 30 days and 6 months [36]
Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4 Induced organ failure [37]
Korean J Clin Lab Sci 2021;53:309-16 https://doi.org/10.15324/kjcls.2021.53.4.309
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