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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Changes in oxidative stress markers, inflammatory substances, and metabolism-related hormones in OSA patients and intermittent hypoxic models

Reference Type of
study
Type of subjects Number of subjects or age (for animal) Type of
markers
Main results Intervention
Franco et al. [53] Case-control Human N=38
(all male)
Oxidative stress:
superoxide, nitrite, nitrate
∙Superoxide levels were proportional to the severity of OSAS, while serum nitrite and nitrate levels were decreasing in inverse proportion to the severity of OSAS No
Villa et al. [54] Case-control Human N=65, children (mean age 5.9±2.0 years) Oxidative stress: urinary 8-isoprostane ∙Urinary 8-isoprostane levels positively correlated with AHI No
Carreras et al. [58] Experimental Animal (C57BL/6J mice) 8 weeks Metabolism-related hormones: Insulin, leptin
Inflammation: M1 macrophage
∙Higher insulin levels were observed after 8 weeks of intermittent hypoxia
∙Leptin levels were unaltered in intermittent hypoxia, but resveratrol treatment reduced plasma leptin levels
∙The proportion of M1 macrophage were increased after intermittent hypoxia
Resveratrol
Yokoe et al. [72] Case-control Human N=44
(30 OSAS patients and 14 obese control)
Inflammation:
plasma CRP, IL-6
∙Levels of CRP and IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in obese control
∙CPAP significantly decreased levels of both CRP and IL-6
CPAP
Htoo et al. [85] Case-control Human N=22 Inflammation:
NF-kappa B, soluble E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
∙Neutrophils in mild to moderate and severe OSA patients showed 4.8- and 7.9-fold greater NF-kappaB binding activity compared with control
∙Soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule concentrations were reduced by CPAP
CPAP
Ohga et al. [86] Case-control Human N=20
(all male)
Inflammation:
ICAM-1, IL-8, MCP-1
∙ICAM-1, IL-8 and MCP-1 were significantly greater than in the controls
∙CPAP treatment decreased the circulating ICAM-1, IL-8, and MCP-1 levels
CPAP
Ciftci et al. [87] Case-control Human N=65
(43 OSAS and 22 obese controls)
Inflammation:
IL-6,TNF-α
∙Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls No
Bingol et al. [88] Case-control Human N=146
(81 females, 65 males)
Metabolism-related hormones:
leptin, adiponectin
∙Severe OSA patients had lower leptin and adiponectin levels No
Badran M et al. [89] Experimental Animal (C57BL/6J mice) 10 weeks Oxidative stress:
urine 8-OHdG
Inflammation:
TNF-α
∙Urinary 8-OHdG levels were higher in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia when compared to control
∙Plasma TNF-αlevels were higher in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia
∙Treatment of dietary alpha lipoic acid lowered systemic oxidative and inflammation
Alpha lipoic acid

Abbreviations: AHI, apnea hypopnea index; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; CRP, c-reactive protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; IL-6, interleukin-6; IL-8, interleukin-8; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.

Korean J Clin Lab Sci 2021;53:285-95 https://doi.org/10.15324/kjcls.2021.53.4.285
© 2021 Korean J Clin Lab Sci