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Table. 1.

Table. 1.

Changes in oxidative stress markers, inflammatory substances, and metabolism-related hormones in OSA patients and intermittent hypoxic models

Reference Type of
Type of subjects Number of subjects or age (for animal) Type of
Main results Intervention
Franco et al. [53] Case-control Human N=38
(all male)
Oxidative stress:
superoxide, nitrite, nitrate
∙Superoxide levels were proportional to the severity of OSAS, while serum nitrite and nitrate levels were decreasing in inverse proportion to the severity of OSAS No
Villa et al. [54] Case-control Human N=65, children (mean age 5.9±2.0 years) Oxidative stress: urinary 8-isoprostane ∙Urinary 8-isoprostane levels positively correlated with AHI No
Carreras et al. [58] Experimental Animal (C57BL/6J mice) 8 weeks Metabolism-related hormones: Insulin, leptin
Inflammation: M1 macrophage
∙Higher insulin levels were observed after 8 weeks of intermittent hypoxia
∙Leptin levels were unaltered in intermittent hypoxia, but resveratrol treatment reduced plasma leptin levels
∙The proportion of M1 macrophage were increased after intermittent hypoxia
Yokoe et al. [72] Case-control Human N=44
(30 OSAS patients and 14 obese control)
plasma CRP, IL-6
∙Levels of CRP and IL-6 were significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in obese control
∙CPAP significantly decreased levels of both CRP and IL-6
Htoo et al. [85] Case-control Human N=22 Inflammation:
NF-kappa B, soluble E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
∙Neutrophils in mild to moderate and severe OSA patients showed 4.8- and 7.9-fold greater NF-kappaB binding activity compared with control
∙Soluble E-selectin and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule concentrations were reduced by CPAP
Ohga et al. [86] Case-control Human N=20
(all male)
ICAM-1, IL-8, MCP-1
∙ICAM-1, IL-8 and MCP-1 were significantly greater than in the controls
∙CPAP treatment decreased the circulating ICAM-1, IL-8, and MCP-1 levels
Ciftci et al. [87] Case-control Human N=65
(43 OSAS and 22 obese controls)
∙Serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in OSAS patients than in controls No
Bingol et al. [88] Case-control Human N=146
(81 females, 65 males)
Metabolism-related hormones:
leptin, adiponectin
∙Severe OSA patients had lower leptin and adiponectin levels No
Badran M et al. [89] Experimental Animal (C57BL/6J mice) 10 weeks Oxidative stress:
urine 8-OHdG
∙Urinary 8-OHdG levels were higher in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia when compared to control
∙Plasma TNF-αlevels were higher in mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia
∙Treatment of dietary alpha lipoic acid lowered systemic oxidative and inflammation
Alpha lipoic acid

Abbreviations: AHI, apnea hypopnea index; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; CRP, c-reactive protein; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1; IL-6, interleukin-6; IL-8, interleukin-8; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; OSA, obstructive sleep apnea; OSAS, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.

Korean J Clin Lab Sci 2021;53:285-95
© 2021 Korean J Clin Lab Sci